What is computer science and what are its fields and functions (comprehensive guide)

 

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I have often been searching for the meaning of the word computer science since the first time I caught my eye while studying.


And I think that you, like me, are interested in computer science and its various fields, why not while we live today in the brightest eras of technology and artificial intelligence in which we depend on computers for almost everything.


Perhaps you are thinking of enrolling in one of the colleges or institutes of computers and information systems, and you want to know more information and details, or perhaps you are curious about the various fields of computer science and its applications in our practical lives.


Or perhaps you are looking for new opportunities for learning and self-development in order to gain more experience during your studies, or to change your current field of work. Whatever the purpose that prompted you to read these lines now... let me assure you that you have come to the right place.


In this comprehensive guide to computer science fields, you will learn about the following:


What is computer science, specifically, with a simple and practical explanation.

How did computer science develop briefly and briefly, to know how we reached the tremendous capabilities that the computer currently enjoys.

The most important terms and various images of computer science.

Various fields of computer science and its applications in our practical life.

The most important scientific subjects that are studied in computer science colleges and institutes.

That's not all, you will also find in this guide:


Lots of videos and practical examples that make you understand all the information in this guide.

The most important resources that you can rely on, in order to start learning the many different fields of computer science.

Practical tips and advice to help you get started in learning any specialty you want.

All this in an easy and simple way that anyone can understand, regardless of their age or background. This is our custom on seo7u. We simplify the information for our dear readers from all over the world.


Now let's start with the introductions... and let's get started!


What is computer science?

Computer Science is one of the branches of engineering, which is concerned with the study of computer technology, passing through its design principles, to its applications in various fields.


Computers are included in almost everything in our daily lives. There is no aspect of life that we do not depend on the computer. Even your small digital watch that you wear represents a small computer that performs a specific task.


For this, you will find many definitions of computer science, but the most important thing is to know that computer science is concerned with everything in the computer, from:


How the computer itself works (how electricity is transformed into videos and images that appear on the screen of your phone or computer).

The architecture of the different computer systems (the Windows operating system you rely on to read these lines now is just a small example of such systems).

Develop a basic roadmap for various computer applications (programs - applications - websites - medical services - money transfers - robotic aircraft management programs) and others.

That is why the study of computer science may be vast, and contains many disciplines and branches that we need to know in various practical fields, and all this is due to the nature of computer science.


Computer science is a mixture of a group of sciences or other knowledge such as:


1. Physics: Knowing the principles of the work of electricity, and how the electrical signal is transmitted through various chemical elements is the cornerstone that scientists used to manufacture the transistor, which is the most important invention in human history in the modern era, because it is the reason behind the modern computer you use today.


This is in contrast to the use of optical fibers to transmit data and information, which made the Internet reach everywhere with ease.


2. Mathematics: The process of converting electrical signals into numbers (0 and 1) is the cornerstone that enabled scientists to develop computers and use it in many tasks.


This is in contrast to the fact that mathematics is the science that enables us to represent various phenomena and different processes in order to understand and control them however we want.


3. Electronics Engineering: A computer is nothing but a set of complex electrical circuits, which are used to transmit and store information, so studying how these circuits work is essential.


This is the nature of computer science, a large world of accumulated knowledge to which many scientists contributed, and after which many people tried to formulate this knowledge so that the following generations could learn it.


Since then, computer science is constantly evolving, there is a new one every day, and despite this the basics remain the same. Which if you learn it, you will then be able to understand any new technology, and how you can use the computer to perform various tasks.


This is what you will learn about in some detail in this guide on the fields of computer science; I will put in front of you a road map representing the scientific topics and the different disciplines of studying computer science.


development of computer science

In order to know and understand anything well, we must know its history first, and for this I will try to summarize the history of computer science with reference to some of the concepts and sources that you will need later.


The first complete computer in the sense we know was built in 1991, but before that there were many attempts, most notably by the British mathematician Alan turing in 1936.


This machine was then known as the Turing Machine, which is considered by many to be the first true model of the computer and the smart computers we now rely on are based on almost the same principles.


You can watch this video that explains the idea of ​​​​this wonderful machine:



In 1940, the American mathematician John von Neumann developed the idea of ​​program storage, or in other words how a previously prepared set of instructions could be stored in a computer.


This principle is the cornerstone of computer work and the construction of complex systems that we rely on today.

For example, when you click on open an image file, the wizard extracts a specific help file and then executes what is in it, processing the image file, and then it appears to you on the screen.


At that time, computers were often used for military purposes (calculating missile trajectories and developing weapons), for economic purposes in large companies and for complex calculations.


Then, through the contribution of many mathematicians and engineers, the Assembly Language appeared in the 1950s, which helped early programmers to give some instructions to the computer in a somewhat understandable way away from the use of binary numbers (0 and 1).


After that, some programming languages ​​appeared, such as COBOL, which was used in simple computers, and which was used by large companies at that time because the cost of computer manufacturing was still high.


After that, programming languages ​​began to develop, and here many problems appeared during the conversion of programming languages ​​into machine language in binary numbers, and here the term “compiler” appeared, and over time operating systems were developed to help use and translate various programs quickly and efficiently.


Read also: Make money from programming through YouTube (everything you need to know)


At the beginning of the eighties, optical devices began to emerge after better and less expensive technologies appeared than the cathode ray tube technologies - the ones we studied in physics - to display images in what is known as bitmap graphics.


In this technique, colors are converted into binary numbers so that the computer can represent them on the display screen. You can watch the following video to understand the idea more clearly.

This technology is the basis on which information display methods were developed until we reached the era of pixels and the high accuracy that we see today in computers, unlike the old graphics, as in the Atari games.


At the same time, the need for the idea of ​​transferring data and information from one computer to another arose, and here began the science of networks and the design of complex systems and protocols until the emergence of the Internet.


Now let's move on to answering an important question on the minds of many about computer science.


Various pictures for studying computer science

Before we go deeper, I want you to know that there are three terms that are interrelated, and sometimes have the same meaning:


 (Computer Science)

 (Computer Engineering)

 (Information Technology) or for short (IT)

 Often anyone who works on performing any computer-related task is called IT, whether it is a maintenance administrator, programmer, or even a database administrator.


The difference between the previous terms is somewhat slight, because they all represent the same basic sciences with a slight difference between some curricula in some universities.


For example, computer engineering may focus more on studying electrical and electronics engineering, and computer science may focus more on studying algorithms and mathematics.


As for studying information technology, it is more concerned with databases and how to deal with and protect them than others… This is what I took into account while writing this guide on the fields of computer science.


You will understand what I mean when you move on to the next section of this guide. All I want from you now is for you to know that whatever the names are different, the labor market only recognizes the tasks that you can perform using the computer.


That is why you will find this guide that contains almost all the fields required in the labor market, and this will help you choose the field that suits you so that you can get a good job or establish your own business with ease.


What are the fields of computer science?

There are many classifications of computer science and its manifold and overlapping topics, most of the fields have a lot in common, but in the following elements you will find the most famous and most important areas in theory (curricula and scientific disciplines), as well as from a practical and applied point of view.


1. Programming

Programming is considered by many to be the most important field of computer science, especially as it is involved in almost all functions and tasks. Most specialists in computer science fields rely on programming principles to one degree or another.


This is not all, programming is also one of the most important fields required in the labor market due to the diversity of jobs and tasks and its applications, which are needed by various companies and institutions.


There are many terms that you may find in front of you such as:


 (Software Engineering)

 (Application Development)

 (Platform-Based Development)

All of these terms often carry one and they all fall under programming, so I don't want you to get distracted when you hear or read these terms.


Programming is the process of building and designing computer programs that any computer can understand and execute, in order to perform specific tasks – such as arithmetic, drawing, or saving and storing information.


Programming is a very broad and large field, and if we talk about it in some detail, this article will turn into a big book… But don't worry!


At seo7u, we have prepared comprehensive guides that explain everything about programming, from defining its basic concepts to how to learn it and the most important functions in demand in the labor market.


I advise you to check out these guides if you want to learn programming:


What is programming? Brief and practical explanation

The most famous programming languages ​​and their most important uses (a comprehensive and simplified guide)

What are the types of electronic programming?

The best sites for learning programming

Best programming books

The best YouTube channels to learn programming

Best Programming Courses for Beginners (Your Guide to Learning from the Best Trainers)

And many other guides that I did not link to, this is in contrast to the guides and explanations that we are currently working on… That is why if you want to search for anything about programming, I advise you to start here at seo7u.


We want to help young people achieve their goals by providing information while simplifying it in a practical way.

2. Graphics and Visual computing

The processes of designing graphics, images, graphics and data on the computer is very complex… Have you ever dealt with programs such as:


photoshop

Autocad

SOLIDWORKS ENGINEERING DESIGN SOFTWARE

These and other programs, which many people rely on, are an example of this field of computer science... You may be impressed by anyone who brilliantly uses the capabilities of these programs in the world of design, animation, and rendering...


What about the people who work on developing these programs in the first place?! who develop and add those features that millions of professionals around the world rely on.


These popular programs and others that you don't hear about, such as software that is used in simulations in the medical and engineering fields, are very complex.


It relies on the principles of advanced mathematics and calculus, and also relies on building its own algorithms... This is what is required of those working in this field.


This field also includes the design and development of games, tools and emulators that developers rely on in this large field in addition to new technology such as:


 (Visual Reality)

 (Augmented Reality)


There are many jobs required in this field such as:


 (Graphics Engineer – Graphics Architect)

 (Data Visualization Specialist)

 (Graphics Programmer)

This field is closely intertwined with (Data Science) - we will talk about it later - as both rely on mathematics and data representation processes.


3. Computer Networks

The field of network engineering is one of the most sought and most popular fields in computer science and engineering. No large organization does not depend on network engineers.


Networks are the way in which any computer communicates with others to transmit information and data… The Internet is the largest network in the world.


You are reading these lines now as a result of the efforts of network engineers to build systems, protocols (such as DNS), and tools from your router to the servers of huge data centers.


You can watch this video to understand more about this field and its most important elements:



The network engineer is responsible for building systems and connections, whether local (Local Network), such as networks of schools, universities, and various government institutions.


Or working on giant networks in telecommunications and Internet companies to design and maintain their infrastructure and work to secure it.


Anyone working in this field needs to have a good knowledge of how computers work and the principles of computer science (which we will talk about later) in addition to obtaining some accredited certifications such as:


Cisco Certified Network Associate - CCNA

Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician - CCENT

Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate (MCSA): Windows Server


The most popular jobs in this field are:


 Network Administrator

 Network Technician

 Network Analyst

 Network Solutions Architect


Due to the high demand for this field and the desire for a lot in the world to learn it, we are currently working on preparing comprehensive guides that will help beginners more to understand this field and learn it from the best sources… Follow us constantly so that you do not miss any new we publish.

4. Computer Architecture

Remember the last time you wanted to buy a PC? Do you remember looking for:


The best processors that fit your budget or the tasks you want to perform.

Find the graphics processor (video card) so that it fits the games or programs that you use frequently.

Ram and permanent memory capabilities.

The operating system that suits the capabilities of the device you have chosen (Windows – Linux).

Find the best programs and applications that help you manage your device and benefit from it.


Read also: make money ways from programming (explanation of the 15 most famous ways to make money from programming)


A computer systems engineer does almost the same thing, but for different companies and organizations, each application or service needs certain computing capabilities.


Both capabilities related to (Hardware) - such as what we talked about previously, but dedicated to building servers and supercomputers - as well as software from choosing operating systems and file and data management programs.


This is not all, specialists in this field must always collect and analyze user data to ensure the quality of service or to improve and develop systems if necessary.


The computer systems engineer must have a complete study of the capabilities of each component of the computer. How does it work? And how to make the best use of it?


This is in addition to knowledge of some powerful programming languages ​​(such as C, C#, C++) to build basic commands and programs for operating systems.


In most computer science curricula and specialized online courses, you will find materials dedicated to studying Computer Architecture in an extensive manner.


Recently appeared (Cloud Services) such as:


 (Google Cloud)

 (Microsoft Azure)

 (Amazon Web Service - AWS)

Read also:What is cloud storage and its best free services


These services help companies and organizations to own servers and complete systems on the Internet by relying on the giant servers and data centers owned by Google, Amazon and Micro Frost.


With the spread of these services, the demand for systems engineers increased more until jobs such as (Cloud Engineer) or (Cloud Architect) appeared.


This is unlike the traditional jobs like System Architect and System Engineer that are required by various companies everywhere in the world.

5. Information Systems

Information systems is a field so large that it is closely intertwined with almost all of the above, however I wanted to talk about it on its own in order to highlight some important points.


The most important principles of information systems are building databases to store customer, user and company data in various fields.


There is no website, application or service that does not rely on complete databases designed specifically for the purpose required of them. Even our winning site contains a database, although we do not deal with user data directly, such as banks or online learning sites, for example.


There are many forms of databases, so you will find in various courses and curricula a special section that talks about databases, their structure, and the principles that depend on them.


If we talk about jobs in this field, we may put most of the jobs we talked about earlier, but I will put some new jobs for you, such as:


 Database Administrator

 Database Engineer

 Business Analyst

  (IT consultant – IT support)

One of the most important branches of this field is (Cybersecurity), and due to its importance and high demand for it, many consider it a stand-alone field, so I will talk about it separately in the next item.


6. Cybersecurity

As long as you are interested in the fields of computer science, you have certainly heard the word (hacker) before, those people who are looking to steal information and data all the time and from any person or organization to take advantage of it.


You may have followed a lot of news about the leaking of customer data in large companies such as Apple, Microsoft or Google, or you may have heard recently about the hacking of the account of Elon Musk - the famous American entrepreneur - on Twitter in the past few days.


This is a simple overview of the field of information security, this field is related to the search for gaps and defects in all different systems and programs.


Remember that all the applications and operating systems that anyone depends on are codes and programs… The hacker also uses programs and tools to address the various corporate systems and programs to obtain data.


Given the sensitivity and importance of this data in many cases (such as bank account data - personal government data - emails) it was necessary to secure and protect it.


Anyone who works in this field is a hacker, trying to find weaknesses in programs and systems in order to treat them, and therefore he must be familiar with the basics of programming and various computer systems.


The most important jobs in this field are:


 (Penetration Tester)

 (Security Architect)

 (Information Security Specialist)

We will soon publish a detailed guide on this field that contains:


More detailed explanation

Learning and training resources

The most important certificates accredited in this field

Follow us regularly so you don't miss out on this guide.


One of the most important branches of information security is cryptography, and since it requires different knowledge and experiences, I will talk about it in detail in the next item.


7. Cryptography

If you are reading these lines now in a web browser on your computer, I want you to look up next to the URL until you see the lock sign ?.


This means that your connection to this page is secured or encrypted, and no one can spy on the nature of your connection or the data you enter when you visit any page on the Internet bearing this tag called an SSL certificate.


Anyone working in the field (Cryptographer) relies on advanced mathematics and algorithms to encrypt and hide information.


It analyzes data of all kinds (numbers - texts) using the principles of numerical analysis in a very deep way, and tries to develop data encryption systems so that it can be easily traded.


That is why many cybersecurity companies use specialists in this field to help them build protection systems, other than government and intelligence institutions.


One of the most prominent applications that depend on encryption is (Cryptocurrencies) such as Bitcoin, tether and Ethereum, which many consider the currencies of the future.


8. Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning

When you open your phone's camera to take a selfie, don't the camera software put a square around your face? Did you ever ask yourself how the camera recognizes his presence so easily and quickly?!


This is one of the simple examples of artificial intelligence and machine learning, which is the most widespread and growing field of computer science.


Artificial intelligence, in short, is an attempt to make a computer think and make decisions just like a human… It gets data and makes decisions according to each different situation.


A computer is a very stupid device that you have to tell it how to do something step by step in detail - as if you are explaining to a blind person a delicious recipe so that they can cook it for you.


This field includes many branches, specializations and terms that you may have heard about, such as:


 (Big Data)

 (Deep learning)

 Artificial neural network

The field of artificial intelligence has many jobs, especially related to (Data science), the development of smart systems, and the construction and training of simulation programs.

In addition to specialized research functions (such as medical research and disease treatment like you saw in the previous video and Natural Language Processing.


Anyone working in this field needs complete knowledge of one or more programming languages ​​such as (Python - R - Java) in addition to a deep understanding of algorithms, how they work and develop, as well as knowledge of mathematics and statistics to collect and analyze data.


Soon we will publish more guides about artificial intelligence and its different branches, and the best sources and courses for you to start learning it yourself.


Read also:

What is Artificial Intelligence (All the Resources and Information You Need)


9. Robotics

I think you followed the news of the robot Sophia, which spread more than two years ago about the first human-like robot, based on artificial intelligence and deep learning techniques.


Watch this video to refresh your memory:



When talking about the future and artificial intelligence, a lot of people imagine robots and that they will replace humans one day... So here is the future has become a reality we live in, amazing isn't it?


Robotics is a mixture of mechanical and electrical engineering, computer science and engineering, and artificial intelligence simultaneously, and has many applications.


Many of the products you rely on every day, such as cars, are made and assembled by giant robots that are designed and programmed to perform a specific task.


Watch this video to learn more about this field and its most important applications in practical life:

This field in particular may not be taught directly in colleges and institutes of computer science and information technology, especially in our Arab world, but rather is taught in colleges of engineering.


But I liked to put it here in this guide to shed light on it, especially since many workers in this field study computer science techniques such as programming and artificial intelligence.


There are also many computer science professionals who have turned to robotics, or are working in this field to help engineers implement their ideas and turn them into reality.


10. Internet of Things

The Internet of Things is one of the areas of computer science that makes all the tools and devices that we rely on connected to the Internet, and at the same time depends on the basics of artificial intelligence.


The smartwatch that you may have heard of is one of the most famous examples of IoT applications. This watch is not only a tool that tells you the time but can:


Take and take notes

Review your agenda

Reply to emails by converting your voice notes into words (Speech to text).

Measuring the heart rate and distance traveled through different sensors.

Watch this short video to learn more examples of the Internet of Things:

As you can see, all of these devices depend on intelligent engineering design, data science and application development in order to achieve the desired goals and help in making decisions.


All this requires knowledge of the basics of computer science from building systems, different networks and databases, and the use of some programming languages, especially C++, in addition to various web development skills.


For all this and because of the great technological development that we are experiencing now, the field of the Internet of Things has become one of the most prominent areas of computer science, which is in high demand for specialists every day.


The most important functions of the field of Internet of Things are:


IoT Developer

IoT Embedded Systems Designer

IoT Architect

Soon we will be publishing more detailed guides on this field and how anyone can get started...so keep following us so you don't miss out.


Important points and aspects of computer science

1. The most important scientific subjects taught by specialists in the field of computer science

As I mentioned, computer science is complex and intertwined, so I will present to you the scientific materials common to most of the previous fields so that you can get a general idea. These materials are:


 (Applied Mathematics)

 (Boolean algebra) and (Logic Gates)

 (Digital Electronics) and how it works

 (Theory of Computing)

 (software engineering) and how applications are built

Programming theories and methods

 (Computer Architecture)

 (Data structures)

 (Algorithms)

 (Operating Systems)

Computer networks and how they work

Internet working principles and protocols (DNS - IPs - APIs) and others

Introduction to artificial intelligence

Information security and protection

2. Advantages of studying computer science

Computer science is the future. As you know well, everything now depends on computers and artificial intelligence techniques. In the near future, the lawyer, doctor, painter, and accountant will rely on computers and smart tools almost completely.


All this makes the study of computer science special for several reasons, including:


Keeping pace with the terrible technological advances that paint the future.

Understand how most of the smart tools you rely on in your working life work.

Develop yourself, your interpersonal skills, logical and problem-solving ability.

Develop your creative skills.

Ability to work in many fields and companies in various industries.

All of these and other reasons make going into a field of computer science interesting, enjoyable and also beneficial on both the moral and material levels.


3. How difficult is it to study computer science?

Despite everything I mentioned above, studying computer science in a practical way is not for everyone, not all people will become programmers or network engineers.


Computer science differs somewhat from other sciences in that it is constantly evolving, A lawyer or a doctor does not learn something completely new every day after he finishes his studies.


Unlike anyone working in the field of computer science, which evolves and changes and new technology and tools appear every day, this makes learning and working in this field somewhat difficult.


Personally, I believe in the saying “nothing is difficult as long as you have the motivation to do it”, so I say if you really have a real passion and want to start in one of the fields of computer science.


I hope that this desire stems from within you, and not just in pursuit of money or bragging in front of people... I advise you to start now without hesitation.


4. How do you choose the right field of computer science for you?

In order to choose the right field you have to understand yourself well, you have to look at the things that you care about and look for every day, look at the problems around you and the opportunities available.


You now have a clear idea of ​​the most important areas of computer science. Do a little research around you and on various employment sites and social networking sites in order to consult with some experts in this field, and get a deeper idea of ​​the nature of work in any field that caught your eye.


And then start, and do not forget that you can always learn a new skill and change your field as you want, especially in convergent fields such as programming, data science and artificial intelligence.


Conclusion


I hope that you benefited from our conversation today about the fields of computer science, and that you found an answer to the questions that revolve in your mind about this wonderful science.


If you have a question, and you haven't found an answer yet, please leave it to us in the comments and we will answer it as soon as possible. If you found this guide useful, share it with your friends and acquaintances so that the benefit will spread!


I wish you success, and see you soon!

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  • Rupesh Kumar
    Rupesh Kumar July 27, 2022 at 11:04 PM

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