What is artificial intelligence, its most important concepts and its impact on employment

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Artificial Intelligence is the most important outcome of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, which is the name given by the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland in 2016 to the last episode in the series of industrial revolutions.


The Fourth Industrial Revolution is based on the digital revolution that represents new ways in which technology becomes an integral part of societies, and even the human body itself.


The Fourth Industrial Revolution is characterized by the penetration of emerging technology in a number of areas including:


Robots

Nano Technology

Quantum computing

Bio-technologies

Internet of Things

3D Printing

Autonomous Vehicles

Artificial Intelligence (which is what our topic is about today).

Today's computers have the ability to solve the most complex mathematical operations, and they are millions of times faster than the human brain.


But she is still largely unable to do the things a young child does as a result of learning, such as knowing his family members, learning to communicate with others, or learning from trial and right and wrong.

 

A computer, as it is understood from its name, calculates and deals with numbers and algorithms, but it does not think or perceive like the human mind.


The human mind consists of billions of neurons interconnected in the form of a very complex network, and many scientists place it at the forefront of the most complex things in the universe. This makes attempts to completely imitate the human mind beyond the capabilities of humans at the present time.


However, there are attempts to imitate some of the characteristics of the human brain that can be used to make machines smarter.


In this context, the researchers focused on two main objectives:


The first goal is to try to understand how the human brain processes acquired information.

The second goal: to try to understand the general foundations of intelligence.

Efforts have been combined in a number of fields to reach these goals, such as philosophy, psychology, cognitive science, logic, linguistics, and biology. Years ago, these efforts began to bear fruit and amazing applications of artificial intelligence appeared.


Now, artificial intelligence is used in the military, industrial, economic, technical, medical, educational and service applications, and it is expected to open the door to limitless innovations, and lead to more industrial revolutions that radically change human life in the future.


With the tremendous and accelerating technological development, and the transformations that the world is witnessing in light of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Artificial Intelligence will be the engine of progress, growth and prosperity over the next few years, and it can and the innovations that follow … establish a new world that may now seem like paths of imagination, but the current signs Emphasizes that this world is near.


What is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial intelligence is referred to abbreviated as AI, is a branch of Computer Science, through which it is possible to create and design programs that simulate the style of human intelligence, human mental abilities and patterns of work.


Through it, the machine can simulate the human in the process of learning from previous experiences, and then it can complete some tasks instead of the human, which requires thinking, understanding, hearing, speaking and moving in a logical and organized manner.


Since the development of the digital computer in the 1940s it has been demonstrated that computers can be programmed to perform very complex tasks, for example the discovery of proof of mathematical theories or playing chess with great mastery.


On the other hand, some programs have achieved the levels of performance of human and professional experts in performing certain tasks. You can find AI in this limited sense in diverse applications, such as medical diagnostics, search engines, voice recognition or handwriting.


From all this we can explain the difference between a normal computer and a computer built with artificial intelligence technology:


Ordinary computer: It can perform a lot of arithmetic and programming operations according to preset commands and relatively fixed algorithms.

As for the computer built with artificial intelligence technology: It is able to complete various tasks in a flexible manner similar to the human ability to complete these tasks.


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A brief history of artificial intelligence


The emergence of artificial intelligence officially began at Dartmouth College in the United States of America in 1956 AD.


With the emergence of the material problems that the industrial sector was suffering from at that time, it was necessary to exploit modern technologies at the time to treat these financial problems.


Artificial intelligence appeared and the Robot was produced in its simplified form, but this progress was not enough to satisfy the aspirations of investors, which prompted them to reduce the amount of funding allocated to the field of robot manufacturing.


In the mid-eighties of the last century, researchers were able to develop computers capable of making some decisions based on solutions to problems that had been programmed in advance, but the developers failed to exploit this invention in practical applications.


With the continuous terrible technological progress, computers appeared capable of learning and solving problems on their own, and in 1997 AD the computer defeated humans for the first time in the game of chess, and the inventions and improvements that prompted artificial intelligence to become today an urgent need and an effective and indispensable means.

It has applications in almost all fields.


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Artificial Intelligence Family

The family of artificial intelligence includes a number of main areas and various applications, which must be known when entering the world of artificial intelligence.


The AI ​​family tree is divided into four main branches:


1- Natural Interface Application


This branch includes three main areas: Natural Language Processing applications, Speech Recognition applications, and Multi-use sensory interfaces.


2- Robotics applications


This branch includes the field of Visual Perception.


3- Computer Science Applications


This branch requires: the generation computer 8K, Parallel Processing, Symbolic processing, Artificial Neural Networks.


4- Cognitive science applications


This branch requires learning of: Expert System, Knowledge based systems, Fuzzy Logic, and Intelligent Agent.


How does artificial intelligence affect the hiring process?

Recruitment is one of the biggest problems facing large companies and even small companies as well, it can be very costly to hire the wrong person, and it can have a detrimental effect on organizations.


From this AI takes an important role when it comes to human capital, AI can improve employee effectiveness, by automating some of the lower level jobs involved in the operation process.


AI systems ensure that additional information is provided to operating managers when the operation begins, there is a large amount of data that is generated and that must be stored, so that entities do not have to reinvent the wheel every time the operation is launched.


In addition, most companies use programs in which artificial intelligence is a key partner in their design, in order to create models that can collect the traits of their successful employees, understand the weaknesses and shortcomings of lower-level employees, and then try to strengthen their weaknesses to take advantage of all human elements within any organization .


As well as the use of testing programs to assess the ability of candidates to fill new jobs, and measure their abilities to perform well in a specific role, and determine whether their personal characteristics are suitable for the organization or not.


Artificial intelligence systems can also enhance the opportunity to find the right talent that can benefit the organization and the operation process, and to use alternatives and provide alternative studies in the event that the required employee is not found.


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The most important companies in the field of artificial intelligence


Google

Google is one of the leading companies in the field of artificial intelligence, as Google uses it, for example, in search engines extensively to reach more accurate search results, or search for images.


An Android phone can also understand its user's commands and simultaneous translation of phrases written in another foreign language on papers or road signs, among others.


Facebook

The social network, Facebook, is one of the most companies using artificial intelligence. The artificial intelligence of the social network, Facebook, allows it to recognize faces in photos, write the name of its owner, choose the appropriate and preferred content and display it to the user on the latest news page, nominate old friends, and many other amazing tasks.


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Important concepts related to artificial intelligence

In order to understand artificial intelligence more deeply, you have to learn some concepts, on which technology pioneers in various applications and fields depend, and which represent the cornerstones of artificial intelligence science.


1- Machine Learning

Machine learning is a sub-field of artificial intelligence that is concerned with providing machines with the ability to learn, and this is achieved by using algorithms that discover patterns of data and data that the machine is exposed to, to apply them in the future and make decisions and predictions, a process that allows programmers to avoid the need to program these machines for each Possible possibilities.


Machine learning is nothing more than an approach to embodying artificial intelligence, eliminating the need or reducing the coding of a program facing a large list of possibilities, and how a machine deals with each of them.


In the 1960s, American electrical engineer Arthur Samuel worked hard to develop artificial intelligence from just recognizing patterns to learning from experience, making him a pioneer in the field.


Where he used Drafts in his research when he was working with IBM, Arthur Samuel chose checkers because it depends on intelligence and some compare it to chess, and Arthur Samuel's philosophy in the development of artificial intelligence later influenced the programming of the first IBM computers.


However, current applications are becoming more and more sophisticated, and are moving towards complex medical applications. Examples of these applications are analysis of genomes or genetic content in an attempt to prevent diseases, diagnosing depression based on speech patterns, and identifying people with suicidal tendencies.


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2- Deep Learning

Deep learning is a sub-field of machine learning, and we can say it is the most Advances from the field of artificial intelligence, a field that approaches artificial intelligence to the goal of enabling machines to learn and think like humans.


When we delve into higher and even more complex levels of machine learning, deep learning comes in. Deep learning requires a complex structure that mimics the interconnected neural networks of the human brain, in order to understand patterns and find missing details.


Although the capabilities of deep learning are very wide, its requirements are also many, as it needs a large amount of data and huge computational capabilities.


This means that there is no need to program a future artificial intelligence with much effort, but instead it can be said that all the possibilities that we seek for the abilities of intelligence and logical thinking, lie in the program itself, it is very similar to the mind of a small child incomplete, but its flexibility is limitless .


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3- Artificial neural network

This technology simulates neurons in the brain, as it relies on building interconnected units that obtain information from more than one source at the same time, and process it sequentially, as happens in the human brain.


This is a core technology that the machine learning technology described above is based on.


 

4- Natural language processing

This term represents the ability of computers and operating systems to analyze and manipulate text and languages ​​used by humans. It's the same technology your phone uses to know what you want to write or search for.


There are other terms, but I'm trying to keep it simple so you can learn about some aspects of artificial intelligence, a technology that will change the face of the world in the near future.


Pros and cons of artificial intelligence


First: the pros of Artificial Intelligence

Achieving high rates of economic development, human development and social development.

Improving and raising levels of human health care.

Much time is shortened in the process of human evolution.

Generalizing the achievements of human development to the world.

Reduce production cost.

Providing high-efficiency services and transportation at a lower price.


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Second, the disadvantages of artificial intelligence

The dominance of large companies on industrial production, and the erosion of the role of medium and small companies in the production process.

Widening unemployment as the automation of industry and rapid technological development would reduce employment opportunities by 50%.

Achieve inequality and widening the gap between the rich and the poor.

It imposes unprecedented challenges on human societies, and requires comprehensive economic restructuring.

The necessity of social and political structuring, because achieving the goals of the Fourth Industrial Revolution requires an economic structure, a social structure and a developed political structure, in line with the new content imposed by this revolution for the concept of comprehensive and sustainable development.

Changing cultural and social values, which will be imposed on the margins of the Fourth Industrial Revolution.


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Challenges Facing Artificial Intelligence Technology

Despite all the developments that occur and occur every day in artificial intelligence technology and its applications, there are still obstacles standing in the way of this development, the most important of which are:


1- The high costs of research and application of artificial intelligence technology in various fields.


2- Artificial intelligence requires building a strong infrastructure of computers and operating systems to store and transfer data quickly and easily.


I know that the self-driving cars that are currently being developed rely on analyzing 1 GB of data per second, and this requires a lot of time and effort.


3- Any technology in the world is a double-edged sword, as artificial intelligence can be used in the medical fields and to help humans.


It is also used in the manufacture of weapons, which are tools that kill humans, so the global scientific community faces a great challenge in controlling and resisting this matter.


4- Developing and improving educational curricula and educating people in different parts of the world is absolutely necessary in order for the process of developing and spreading artificial intelligence to continue in a correct manner.


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Artificial intelligence technology is no different from any other technology, as many modern tools that have been invented are used by humans right and wrong at the same time. Just as there are jobs that disappear, there are also new jobs that appear.


I hope with this article I helped you understand one of the most important concepts of our time, which is artificial intelligence that will radically reshape the world in the future.


Do not forget to share the topic with your friends, I am also very happy to receive your participation in the comment box below.

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